|Key questions that can be used to identify symptoms characteristic of nociceptive, neuropathic, or centrally mediated chronic low back pain
Smart KM, et al. Clin J Pain. 2011;27:655-663.
A multidimensional pain assessment tool that asks patients to rate pain levels, responses to treatment, and effects on function and quality of life
Cleeland CS, Ryan KM. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1994;23:129-138.
A structured approach to the physical exam, motor strength testing, and sensory evaluation for patients presenting with low back pain
Duffy RL. Prim Care. 2010;37:729-741, vi.
A concise list of general recommendations that can guide clinicians in the prescription of medication combinations for chronic pain
Argoff CE, et al. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2006;10:34-38.
A 20-item questionnaire that assesses the patient’s cognitive thoughts, pain-associated fear, physiologic arousal, and escape or avoidance behaviors in an effort to identify maladaptive thoughts or unhelpful behaviors related to chronic pain
McCracken LM, Dhingra L. Pain Res Manag. 2002;7:45-50.
A brief tool that can assist in the diagnosis of depression and the selection and monitoring of treatment in patients with chronic pain
Kroenke K, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16:606-613.