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Getting Low in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Reducing LDL-C and a Lifetime of Cardiovascular Risk

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Clinical Practice Guidelines

Genetic testing in dyslipidemia: A scientific statement from the National Lipid Association.

Brown EE, Sturm AC, Cuchel M, et al. J Clin Lipidol. 2020;14(4):398-413.

The agenda for familial hypercholesterolemia: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

Gidding SS, Champagne MA, de Ferranti SD, et al. Circulation. 2015;132(22):2167-2192.

Familial hypercholesterolemia: screening, diagnosis and management of pediatric and adult patients: clinical guidance from the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

Goldberg AC, Hopkins PN, Toth PP, et al. J Clin Lipidol. 2011;5(suppl 3):S1-S8.

Consensus statement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology on the management of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease algorithm—2020 Executive Summary.

Handelsman Y, Jellinger PS, Guerin CK, et al. Endocr Pract. 2020;26(10):1196-1224.

2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. The Task Force for the management of dyslipidaemias of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS).

Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. Eur Heart J. 2020;41(1):111-188.

Familial hypercholesterolaemia is underdiagnosed and undertreated in the general population: guidance for clinicians to prevent coronary heart disease: consensus statement of the European Atherosclerosis Society.

Nordestgaard BG, Chapman MJ, Humphries SE, et al. Eur Heart J. 2013;34(45):3478-3490..

Enhancing the value of PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies by identifying patients most likely to benefit. A consensus statement from the National Lipid Association. 

Robinson JG, Jayanna MB, Brown AS, et al. J Clin Lipidol. 2019;13(4):525-537.

Clinical genetic testing for familial hypercholesterolemia: JACC Scientific Expert Panel.

Sturm AC, Knowles JW, Gidding SS, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72(6):662-680.

Lipid measurements in the management of cardiovascular diseases: practical recommendations. A scientific statement from the National Lipid Association Writing Group.

Wilson PWF, Jacobson TA, Martin SS. et al. J Clin Lipidol. 2021. [In press.]

Patient and Caregiver Resources

American Heart Association

FH Foundation

National Lipid Association

Suggested Readings

A randomized controlled trial of genetic testing and cascade screening in familial hypercholesterolemia. 

Ajufo E, deGoma EM, Raper A, Yu KD, Cuchel M, Rader DJ. Genet Med. 2021;23(9):1697-1704.

Bempedoic acid plus ezetimibe fixed-dose combination in patients with hypercholesterolemia and high CVD risk treated with maximally tolerated statin therapy.

Ballantyne CM, Laufs U, Ray KK, et al. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2020;27(6):593-603.

The lifelong burden of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Banerjee A, Alothman L, Couture P, et al. Can J Cardiol. 2019;35(10):1419.e1-1419.e4.

Montreal-FH-SCORE predicts coronary artery calcium score in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

Béland-Bonenfant S, Paquette M, Fantino M, et al. CJC Open. 2021;3(1):41-47.

Why patients with familial hypercholesterolemia are at high cardiovascular risk? Beyond LDL-C levels.

Bianconi V, Banach M, Pirro M. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2021;31(4):205-215.

Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in adults with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: The ODYSSEY HoFH trial.

Blom DJ, Harada-Shiba M, Rubba P, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;76(2):131-142.

Familial hypercholesterolemia: is it time to separate monogenic from polygenic familial hypercholesterolemia?

Brandts J, Dharmayat KI, Ray KK, Vallejo-Vaz AJ. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2020;31(3):111-118.

PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab in pediatric patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: The ODYSSEY KIDS study.

Daniels S, Caprio S, Chaudhari U, et al. J Clin Lipidol. 2020;14(3):322-330.e6.

Long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of evolocumab in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Hovingh GK, Raal FJ, Dent R, et al. J Clin Lipidol. 2017;11(6):1448-1457.

Challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Ito MK, Watts GF. Drugs. 2015;75(15):1715-1724.

ODYSSEY FH I and FH II: 78 week results with alirocumab treatment in 735 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.

Kastelein JJP, Ginsberg HN, Langslet G, et al. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(43):2996-3003.

Management of familial hypercholesterolemia: current status and future perspectives.

Lui DTW, Lee ACH, Tan KCB. J Endocr Soc. 2021;5(1):bvaa122.

Familial hypercholesterolemia: new horizons for diagnosis and effective management.

Mytilinaiou M, Kyrou I, Khan M, Grammatopoulos DK, Randeva HS. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:707.

Cascade screening and treatment initiation in young adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Peterson AL, Bang M, Block RC, Wong ND, Karalis DG. J Clin Med. 2021;10(14):3090.

Prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

Peterson AL, McNeal CJ, Wilson DP. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2021;23(10):64.

Inhibition of PCSK9 with evolocumab in homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (TESLA Part B): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Raal FJ, Honarpour N, Blom DJ, et al. Lancet. 2015;385(9965):341-350.

Inclisiran for the treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Raal FJ, Kallend D, Ray KK, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(16):1520-1530.

Evinacumab for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

Raal FJ, Rosenson RS, Reeskamp LF, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(8):711-720.

Familial hypercholesterolemia—epidemiology, diagnosis, and screening.

Singh S, Bittner V. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2015;17(2):482.

Getting Low in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Reducing LDL-C and a Lifetime of Cardiovascular Risk

Relevant Resources

Incretin-Based Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes

Mechanism-Based Strategies to Achieve Patient-Centered Care

Insulin Replacement Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes

Patient-Centered Management of Hyperglycemia in Primary Care

Improving Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes

Integrating GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Into Multimodal Treatment Regimens

A Focus on Bipolar Depression

Overcoming Diagnostic Barriers and Optimizing Long-Term Patient Outcomes

Acute Management of Migraine Attacks

Overcoming Pain and Gastrointestinal Distress to Improve Patient Outcomes

Clinical Updates on the Management of Gout

Evidence-Based Strategies for Improved Patient Outcomes

Clinical Issues in Type 2 Diabetes

Discussions and Debates Around GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

Clinical Issues in Type 2 Diabetes

Evolving Roles of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

Opioid-Induced Constipation

Proactive Diagnosis and Targeted Management

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Asthma, or Both

Differential Diagnosis and Comprehensive Management Strategies

Improving Outcomes for Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Individualizing Evidence-Based Care

Improving Outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Optimizing Maintenance Therapy Across Healthcare Settings

Managing Gout in Primary Care

Evolving Strategies for Diagnosis and Long-Term Management

Clinical Issues in Chronic Pain

Consensus and Controversies for Responsible Opioid Prescribing

Noninsulin Approaches to Managing Type 2 Diabetes

Best Practices in Combination Therapy

Hitting the Target in Type 2 Diabetes

Evolving Approaches to Insulin Based Therapy

Improving Outcomes in Congenital and Acquired Lipodystrophy

Best Practices in Diagnosis and Management

Clearing the Air

Improving Outcomes for Patients with COPD

Clinical Updates in Type 2 Diabetes

New Strategies for Insulin Replacement Therapy

Clinical Issues in Type 2 Diabetes

Consensus and Controversies Around Intensifying Noninsulin Therapy

How Low Do You Go?

Clinical Updates in LDL-C Management

Incretin-Based Therapies For Type 2 Diabetes

Improving Comprehensive Patient Care

Improving Outcomes in Non–24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder

Identifying Patients and Tailoring Therapy

Comprehensive Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Collaborative Approaches to Guideline-Concordant Patient Care

Clinical Updates in the Management of Severe Asthma

New Strategies for Individualizing Long-term Care

Comprehensive Chronic Pain Management

A Focus on Patients With Opioid-Induced Constipation

Clinical Issues in Bipolar Depression

Consensus and Controversies Across the Spectrum of Patient Presentations

Improving Outcomes in Severe Asthma

A New Era in Precision Medicine

Clinical Updates in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Evolving Treatment Algorithms and Expert Perspectives on Biosimilars

Caring for Patients with Severe Asthma

Evolving Best Practices to Optimize Outcomes

Clinical Issues in Severe Asthma

Consensus and Controversies on the Road to Precision Medicine

Breathing Life Into COPD Management

Ongoing Monitoring, Pulmonary Rehabilitation, and Individualized Care

Can You Spot Axial Spondyloarthritis?

The PCP’s Role in Timely Recognition and Referral

Clinical Updates in Type 2 Diabetes

An Evolving Role for Combinations of Injectable Antihyperglycemic Therapies

Clinical Issues in Severe Asthma

Debates and Discussions About Personalizing Patient Management

Raising the Bar by Lowering the Target

Integrating PCSK9 Inhibitors Into Hypercholesterolemia Management

Injecting New Ideas into Managing Type 2 Diabetes

Evolving Roles of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

Advancing the Care of Severe Asthma

Differential Diagnosis, Multidisciplinary Management, and Patient Engagement

Updates in HCV Screening and Treatment

Key Issues Impacting OB/GYN Practice

Focusing on Patients With Severe Asthma

From Guideline Recommendations to Daily Clinical Decision-Making

Clearing the Air in Severe Asthma Management

Improving Patient Outcomes Through Shared Clinical Decision Making

Evolving Models of HIV Care

Volume II: Expanding Evidence for the Role of Rapid ART Initiation in HIV Practice

Multidimensional Issues in Type 2 Diabetes

Looking Beyond Hemoglobin A1c

Clearing the Air in Severe Asthma Management

Improving Patient Outcomes Through Shared Clinical Decision Making

Marching Forward in Atopic Dermatitis

Digging Deep on Shared Decision-Making

GLP-1 Receptors Agonists in Type 2 Diabetes

Mechanistic Insights and Evolving Treatment Options

Pharmaceutical Economics and LDL-C Management

Implications for PCSK9 Inhibitors in Clinical Practice

Airing It Out

A Case-Based Conversation on Managing Asthma and Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyposis

COPD in Managed Care

The Clinical and Utilization Benefits of Exacerbation Prevention

Finding the Right Path in Severe Asthma

Mechanistic Insights and Emerging Treatment Options

COPD Cases and Conversations

A Focus on Exacerbation Prevention

Assimilating the Evidence in T2DM

Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes With SGLT2 Inhibitors

Demystifying New Evidence for COPD Management

Best Practices for Primary Care

Finding Relief in Osteoarthritis

New Paths to Chronic Pain Management

The Changing Landscape of HIV Prevention

What the Pharmacist Needs to Know about PrEP

What’s New in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?

Unlocking Novel Paths to Patient Care

Updates on Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

Evolving Best Practices for Patient Management

Expert Views on the Changing Landscape in RA

The Increasing Role of JAK Inhibitors

A Breath of Fresh Air in Pediatric Asthma

Shared Decision-making in the Era of Biologics

Swimming Upstream in Severe Asthma

New Pathways to Patient Management

Where are We Now In Moderate-to-Severe Asthma?

From Comprehensive Patient Evaluations to Individualized Evidence-based Care

COPD Cases & Conversations

Preventing COPD Exacerbations to Improve Outcomes

Comprehensive Management in COPD

A Whole Patient Case Series

Clinical Issues in COVID-19

Debates and Discussions about Monoclonal Antibody Therapies

Minimizing Patient Risks From COVID-19

An Update on Monoclonal Antibody Therapies

Cause for Alarm

New Avenues to the Management of Severe Asthma

Maybe It’s NOT Mechanical Back Pain

Getting on the Fast Track to Identify AxSpA

Treating Hepatitis C in the Primary Care Setting

Establishing Clinical Readiness Through Mentored Learning

Getting Up To Speed In Moderate-To-Severe Asthma

Evolving Best Practices for Pediatric Patients

Finding the Path in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Interdisciplinary Strategies for Adult and Pediatric Patients

Answering the Call

Interdisciplinary Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Hereditary Angioedema

Expert Consult Series in Multiple Sclerosis

Updates, Clinical Scenarios, and Future Directions

Putting a Spotlight on Systemic Mastocytosis

A Multidisciplinary Look at Early Diagnosis and Management

Targeting Clear Horizons

Finding the Path in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

Clinical Updates in COVID-19

Recent Developments in Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment

Is It Systemic Mastocytosis?

Best Practices for Diagnosis and Management

Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID-19

An Update on Best Practices

Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID-19

New Avenues to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

Answering the Bell in Severe Asthma

New Pathways to Optimize Patient Outcomes

Early Cancer Detection in Primary Care:

Are You Aware of New Blood-Based Multi-Cancer Screening Tools

Clinical Issues in Severe Asthma

Debates and Discussions About New Upstream Treatment Avenues

Clearing the Way in Atopic Dermatitis

A Case-Based Update on Pediatric Patients

Buffing Up on New and Emerging ART

A Look at the Changing HIV Playing Field

Pharmacy PrEP Education

A “How To” Series Spanning Policy to Practice


Building Bridges to Reach People who Inject Drugs with the Goal of Employing PrEP for HIV Prevention

Flexing Your Early Cancer Detection Muscles

Strengthening Your Knowledge of Blood-Based Screening Tools

Long-Acting Injectable PrEP:

Bringing HIV Prevention to a New Level

PrEParing to End the Epidemic

Optimizing HIV Prevention in Primary Care

Multi-Cancer Early Detection in Primary Care

What You Need to Know About New Blood-Based Screening Tools

A Call to Action

Monoclonal Antibodies for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19

Making the Call in Heart Failure

Multidimensional Outcomes With SGLT2 Inhibitors

Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

New Avenues to Improve Patient Outcomes

What’s Next

Exploring New Treatment Avenues in Nonadvanced Systemic Mastocytosis

Best Practices in COPD

Practical Updates on the 2023 GOLD Guidelines

Answers to Everyday Practice Challenges in HIV Medicine

A Phone-a-Friend CME Series – Volume 2

Flexing Your Muscles in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Best Practices for Screening, Diagnosis, and Management

What’s New in the Management of COVID-19

Incorporating New Data and Updated Guidelines Into Daily Practice

Lifting the Bar in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Capitalizing on BCMA-Directed Therapies