Answers to Everyday Practice Challenges in HIV Medicine

A Phone-a-Friend CME Series – Volume 2

Clinical Practice Guidelines 

Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in adults and adolescents living with HIV.

US Department of Health and Human Services 

Long COVID or post-COVID conditions.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  

Characteristics, prevention, and management of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

Feinstein MJ, Hsue PY, Benjamin LA, et al. Circulation. 2019;140(2):e98-e124.

2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines.

Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. Circulation. 2019;139(25):e1046-e1081. 

Clinician Resources 

ASCVD Risk Estimator Plus.

American College of Cardiology.

Ward 86 long-acting injectable antiretroviral protocol.

Getting to Zero San Francisco.   

HIV Drug Resistance Database

Stanford University. 

HIV drug interactions.

University of Liverpool. 

Medications for Substance Use Disorder

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)

Patient and Caregiver Resources 

AIDSMap Resources

NAM Publications 

Resources for persons living with HIV

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 

HIV resources

National Institutes of Health 

Suggested Readings

Switching to bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF) From dolutegravir (DTG)+F/TAF or DTG+F/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in the presence of pre-existing NRTI resistance.

Acosta RK, Willkom M, Andreatta K, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2020;85(3):363-371. 

Cognitive impairment in people living with HIV in the ART era: A Review.

Alford K, Vera JH. British Medical Bulletin. 2018;127(1):55-68. 

Provision of onsite HIV Services in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs: A longitudinal analysis.

Aletaris L, Roman PM. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2015;57:1-8. 

Weight and metabolic changes after switching from tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/emtricitabine (FTC) +dolutegravir (DTG), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/FTC + DTG, and TDF/FTC/efavirenz (EFV) to TDF/lamivudine (3TC)/DTG.

Bosch B, Akpomiemie G, Chandiwana N, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2022; ciac949. 

First demonstration project of long-acting injectable antiretroviral therapy for persons with and without detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia in an urban HIV clinic.

Christopoulos KA, Grochowski J, Mayorga-Munoz F, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2022; ciac631. 

Factors associated with resilience among Black women living with HIV and histories of trauma.

Dale SK, Reid R, Safren SA. J Health Psychol. 2021;26(5):758-766. 

The revolving door of HIV care: Revising the service delivery cascade to achieve the UNAIDS 95-95-95 goals.

Ehrenkranz P, Rosen S, Boule A, et al. PLoS Med. 2021;18(5):e1003651. 

HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.

Eggers C, Arendt G, Hahn K, et al. J Neurol. 2017;264(8):1715-1727.  

Phase 3 study of ibalizumab for multidrug-resistant HIV-1.

Emu B, Fessel J, Schrader S, et al. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(7):645-654. 

The conundrum of 'long-COVID-19': a narrative review.

Garg M, Maralakunte M, Garg S, et al. Int J Gen Med. 2021;14:2491-2506.

Lenacapavir administered every 26 weeks or daily in combination with oral daily antiretroviral therapy for initial treatment of HIV: a randomised, open-label, active-controlled, phase 2 trial.

Gupta SK, Berhe M, Crofoot G, et al. Lancet HIV. 2023;10(1):e15-e23.

Switching to bictegravir/emtrictabine/tenofovir alafenamide in Black americans with HIV-1: a randomized phase 3b, multicenter, open-label study.

Hagins D, Kumar P, Saag M, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2021;88(1):86-85.

Gender and sexual identity in adolescence: A mixed-methods study of labeling in diverse community settings.

Hammack PL, Hughes SD, Atwood JM, et al. J Adolesc Res. 2021;37(2):167-220.

Safety and efficacy of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor prodrug fostemsavir in heavily treatment-experienced individuals: week 96 results of the phase 3 BRIGHTE study.

Lataillade M, Lalezari JP, Kozal M, et al. Lancet HIV. 2020;7(11):e740-e751. 

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders: Mind the gap.

McArthur JC, Steiner J, Sacktor N, et al. Ann Neurol. 2010;67(6):699-714.

Beyond Core Indicators of Retention in HIV Care: Missed Clinic Visits Are Independently Associated with All-Cause Mortality.

Mugavero MJ, Westfall AO, Cole SR, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(10):1471-1479.

Associations between integrase strand-transfer inhibitors and cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV: a multicentre prospective study from the RESPOND cohort consortium.

Neesgaard B, Greenberg L, Miró JM, et al. Lancet HIV. 2022;9(7):e474-e485.

Changes in weight and BMI with first-line doravirine-based therapy.

Orkin C, Elion R, Thompson M, et al. AIDS. 2021;35(1):91-99.

Dolutegravir or darunavir in combination with zidovudine or tenofovir to treat HIV.

Paton NI, Musaazi J, Kityo C, et al. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(4):330-341.  

Post-acute sequelae and adaptive immune responses in people living with HIV recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Peluso MJ, Spinelli MA, Deveau T-M, et al. AIDS. 2022;36(12):F7-F16.

Risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex in serodifferent gay couples with the HIV-positive partner taking suppressive antiretroviral therapy (PARTNER): Final results of a multicentre, prospective, observational study.

Rodger AJ, Cambiano V, Bruun T, et al. Lancet. 2019;393(10189):2428-2438.

Aging, comorbidities, and the importance of finding biomarkers for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

Rosenthal J, Tyor W. J Neurovirol. 2019;25(5):673-685. 

Weight gain following initiation of antiretroviral therapy: risk factors in randomized comparative clinical trials.

Sax PE, Erlandson KM, Lake JE, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(6):1380-1390. 

Capsid inhibition with lenacapavir in multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection.

Segal-Maurer S, DeJesus E, Stellbrink HJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(19):1793-1803.

Ethnic inequalities in mental health and socioeconomic status among older women living with HIV: result from the PRIME Study.

Solomon D, Tariq S, Alldis J, et al. Sex Transm Infect. 2022;98(2):128-131. 

Mortality risk during and after opioid substitution treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Sordo L, Barrio G, Bravo MJ, et al. BMJ 2017;357:j1550.

Nirmatrelvir and the risk of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19.

Xie Y, Choi T, Al-Aly Z. medRxiv. 2022:11.03.22281783. 

Mental Health in Aging People With HIV: Module 1

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series

Long COVID in Patients with HIV: Module 2

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series

Salvage Regimens for HTE Patients: Module 3

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series

Long-Acting Injectable Implementation: Module 4

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series

Virologic Failure in HIV: Module 5

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series

Challenges in Social Determinants of Health: Module 6

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series—Volume 2

Persistent Challenges in HIV in People Who Inject Drugs: Module 7

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series—Volume 2

Management of People With HIV Coinfected With Hepatitis B and Hepatitis D Viruses: Module 8

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series—Volume 2

Management of People with HIV and Weight Gain: Module 9

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series—Volume 2

Recognizing and Addressing Health Disparities Among Black Women: Module 10

A Phone-a-Friend Peer Consult Series—Volume 2

Relevant Resources

Acute Management of Migraine Attacks

Overcoming Pain and Gastrointestinal Distress to Improve Patient Outcomes

Clinical Updates on the Management of Gout

Evidence-Based Strategies for Improved Patient Outcomes

Opioid-Induced Constipation

Proactive Diagnosis and Targeted Management

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Asthma, or Both

Differential Diagnosis and Comprehensive Management Strategies

Improving Outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Optimizing Maintenance Therapy Across Healthcare Settings

Managing Gout in Primary Care

Evolving Strategies for Diagnosis and Long-Term Management

Clinical Issues in Chronic Pain

Consensus and Controversies for Responsible Opioid Prescribing

Noninsulin Approaches to Managing Type 2 Diabetes

Best Practices in Combination Therapy

Hitting the Target in Type 2 Diabetes

Evolving Approaches to Insulin Based Therapy

Clearing the Air

Improving Outcomes for Patients with COPD

Clinical Updates in Type 2 Diabetes

New Strategies for Insulin Replacement Therapy

How Low Do You Go?

Clinical Updates in LDL-C Management

Incretin-Based Therapies For Type 2 Diabetes

Improving Comprehensive Patient Care

Improving Outcomes in Non–24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder

Identifying Patients and Tailoring Therapy

Comprehensive Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Collaborative Approaches to Guideline-Concordant Patient Care

Clinical Updates in the Management of Severe Asthma

New Strategies for Individualizing Long-term Care

Comprehensive Chronic Pain Management

A Focus on Patients With Opioid-Induced Constipation

Clinical Issues in Bipolar Depression

Consensus and Controversies Across the Spectrum of Patient Presentations

Clinical Updates in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Evolving Treatment Algorithms and Expert Perspectives on Biosimilars

Caring for Patients with Severe Asthma

Evolving Best Practices to Optimize Outcomes

PrEP for Your Patients’ Needs

The PCPs Role in Preventing HIV

Can You Spot Axial Spondyloarthritis?

The PCP’s Role in Timely Recognition and Referral

Value-Based HIV Formularies

Optimizing Use of Clinical Evidence & Pharmacoeconomic Models in Managed Care

Hepatitis C is Curable

Got it? Treat it!

Real-World Issues in HIV Prevention & Treatment

The Critical Role of the Community Pharmacist


Bringing Local Communities Together to Eliminate Coinfection Through Knowledge and Partnerships.

Evolving Models of HIV Care

Volume 1: Rapid ART Initiation: A New Addition to the HIV-Care Tool Box

Advancing the Care of Severe Asthma

Differential Diagnosis, Multidisciplinary Management, and Patient Engagement

Updates in HCV Screening and Treatment

Key Issues Impacting OB/GYN Practice

Clinical Issues in Chronic Liver Disease

Hot Topics in HBV, HCV, and NASH

Evolving Models of HIV Care

Volume II: Expanding Evidence for the Role of Rapid ART Initiation in HIV Practice

Assessing Your Patients for HCV and HIV

Why It Matters in OB/GYN Practice Today

Clearing the Air in Severe Asthma Management

Improving Patient Outcomes Through Shared Clinical Decision Making

HIV as a Chronic Disease

A Treater’s Guide to Optimizing Care in the Aging Patient with Comorbidities

The Pursuit of Hepatitis C Elimination

How the Pharmacist Can Make a Difference

GLP-1 Receptors Agonists in Type 2 Diabetes

Mechanistic Insights and Evolving Treatment Options

Trends in Infectious Diseases: Updates on Treatment & Prevention Strategies for HIV and HCV

Understanding the Growing Syndemic — Opioids, HCV, and HIV

Airing It Out

A Case-Based Conversation on Managing Asthma and Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyposis

COPD in Managed Care

The Clinical and Utilization Benefits of Exacerbation Prevention

Assimilating the Evidence in T2DM

Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes With SGLT2 Inhibitors

Demystifying New Evidence for COPD Management

Best Practices for Primary Care

Finding Relief in Osteoarthritis

New Paths to Chronic Pain Management

Stepping Up to the Challenge

The PCP’s Role in HCV Elimination

The Changing Landscape of HIV Prevention

What the Pharmacist Needs to Know about PrEP

Evolving Models of HIV Care (Volume 3)

The Rapid ART Standard of Care: From Evidence to Healthcare Equity

What’s New in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?

Unlocking Novel Paths to Patient Care

HIV Updates for Pharmacy Practice

Maximizing Your Role to Impact Patient Outcomes


Building Bridges to Reach People Who Inject Drugs With the Goal to Eliminate HCV

Case Challenges in HIV Medicine

Benefits, Barriers, & Best Practices in an Advancing Field

Challenges and Opportunities in HIV

Practical Solutions Across the Spectrum of Care

A Critical Appraisal of Non-Invasive Technologies in NASH

Informing the Future of NASH Diagnosis and Assessment

Expanding HIV Prevention in Colorado—and Nationwide

A PEP/PrEP Training Guide for Pharmacists

Expert Views on the Changing Landscape in RA

The Increasing Role of JAK Inhibitors

COPD Cases & Conversations

Preventing COPD Exacerbations to Improve Outcomes

Treating Hepatitis C in the Primary Care Setting

A Critical Step Toward HCV Elimination

Honing Clinical Skills in HIV Treatment

Considering the Patient, the Provider, and the Science

Hot Topics in HCV

A Multidisciplinary Online Mini-Curriculum

Comprehensive Management in COPD

A Whole Patient Case Series

Clinical Issues in COVID-19

Debates and Discussions about Monoclonal Antibody Therapies

Minimizing Patient Risks From COVID-19

An Update on Monoclonal Antibody Therapies

Maybe It’s NOT Mechanical Back Pain

Getting on the Fast Track to Identify AxSpA

Treating Hepatitis C in the Primary Care Setting

Establishing Clinical Readiness Through Mentored Learning

Finding the Path in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Interdisciplinary Strategies for Adult and Pediatric Patients

Answering the Call

Interdisciplinary Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Hereditary Angioedema

Getting Low in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Reducing LDL-C and a Lifetime of Cardiovascular Risk

Expert Consult Series in Multiple Sclerosis

Updates, Clinical Scenarios, and Future Directions

Putting a Spotlight on Systemic Mastocytosis

A Multidisciplinary Look at Early Diagnosis and Management

Clinical Updates in COVID-19

Recent Developments in Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Monoclonal Antibodies for Treatment

Is It Systemic Mastocytosis?

Best Practices for Diagnosis and Management

Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID-19

An Update on Best Practices

Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID-19

New Avenues to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

Early Cancer Detection in Primary Care:

Are You Aware of New Blood-Based Multi-Cancer Screening Tools

Virologic Failure in HIV

An Updated Clinician’s Guide to Assessment and Management

Applying HIV Advances in Practice

What the Pharmacist Needs to Know

Buffing Up on New and Emerging ART

A Look at the Changing HIV Playing Field

Pharmacy PrEP Education

A “How To” Series Spanning Policy to Practice


Building Bridges to Reach People who Inject Drugs with the Goal of Employing PrEP for HIV Prevention

Flexing Your Early Cancer Detection Muscles

Strengthening Your Knowledge of Blood-Based Screening Tools

Long-Acting Injectable PrEP:

Bringing HIV Prevention to a New Level

PrEParing to End the Epidemic

Optimizing HIV Prevention in Primary Care

Multi-Cancer Early Detection in Primary Care

What You Need to Know About New Blood-Based Screening Tools

A Call to Action

Monoclonal Antibodies for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19

What’s Next

Exploring New Treatment Avenues in Nonadvanced Systemic Mastocytosis

Best Practices in COPD

Practical Updates on the 2023 GOLD Guidelines

Flexing Your Muscles in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Best Practices for Screening, Diagnosis, and Management

What’s New in the Management of COVID-19

Incorporating New Data and Updated Guidelines Into Daily Practice

Lifting the Bar in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma

Capitalizing on BCMA-Directed Therapies

New Horizons in Severe Asthma

From the Airway Epithelium to Improved Patient Outcomes

Strengthening Your COVID-19 Management Technique

Exercising Best Practices for Hospitalized Patients

Making the Rounds on Systemic Mastocytosis

Accelerating Diagnosis and Treatment