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Scientific Insights Into Incretin Signaling and Type 2 Diabetes

Vivian Fonseca, MD, FRCP
Suggested Readings

Initial combination therapy with metformin, pioglitazone and exenatide is more effective than sequential add-on therapy in subjects with new-onset diabetes. Results from the Efficacy and Durability of Initial Combination Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes (EDICT): a randomized trial

Abdul-Ghani MA, Puckett C, Triplitt C, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015;17(3):268-275

Is insulin the most effective injectable antihyperglycaemic therapy? 

Buse JB, Peters A, Russell-Jones D, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015;17(2):145-151

Risk of cardiac arrhythmias during hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk 

Chow E, Bernjak A, Williams S, et al. Diabetes. 2014;63(5):1738-1747

Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist or bolus insulin with optimized basal insulin in type 2 diabetes

Diamant M, Nauck MA, Shaginian R, et al. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(10):2763-2773

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin combination treatment for the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Eng C, Kramer CK, Zinman B, Retnakaran R. Lancet. 2014;384(9961):2228-2234

Efficacy and safety of a fixed-ratio combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide (IDegLira) compared with its components given alone: results of a phase 3, open-label, randomised, 26-week, treat-to-target trial in insulin-naive patients with type 2 diabetes

Gough SC, Bode B, Woo V, et al. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014;2(11):885-893

Central effects of GLP-1: new opportunities for treatments of neurodegenerative diseases

Hölscher C. J Endocrinol. 2014;221(1):T31-T41

Incretins and the intensivist: what are they and what does an intensivist need to know about them? 

Plummer MP, Chapman MJ, Horowitz M, Deane AM. Crit Care. 2014;18(1):205

Benefits of exenatide on obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with elevated liver enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes

Shao N, Kuang HY, Hao M, Gao XY, Lin WJ, Zou W. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2014;30(6):521-529

Using real-world data to evaluate the association of incretin-based therapies with risk of acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis of 1,324,515 patients from observational studies

Wang T, Wang F, Gou Z, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015;17(1):32-41

Five-year efficacy and safety data of exenatide once weekly: long-term results from the DURATION-1 randomized clinical trial

Wysham CH, MacConell LA, Maggs DG, Zhou M, Griffin PS, Trautmann ME. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015;90(3):356-365

Linked Resources


Standards of medical care in diabetes—2015.

The ADA’s Standards of Care provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested individuals with the components of good diabetes management, general treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. Importantly, these recommendations should be adjusted based on individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient-related factors.
American Diabetes Association.  Diabetes Care. 2015;38(suppl 1):S1-S94.

AACE/ACE comprehensive diabetes management algorithm 2015.

This algorithm from the AACE addresses evaluating the whole patient, potential risks and complications, and evidence-based treatment approaches for diabetes. The document contains sections on obesity, prediabetes, hyperglycemia therapy (lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy, and insulin), hypertension management, hyperlipidemia treatment, and other risk-reduction strategies.
Garber AJ, Abrahamson MJ, Barzilay JI, et al. Endocr Pract. 2015;21(4):438-447.

Patient Resource

Diabetes HealthSense 

Provides easy access to resources to help patients live well and meet their goals—whether they have diabetes or are at risk for the disease.