Meeting slides
Interactive presentation

Scientific Insights Into Incretin Signaling and Type 2 Diabetes

Eileen Egan, DNP, FNP-C, CDE
Suggested Readings

Is insulin the most effective injectable antihyperglycaemic therapy?

Buse JB, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015;17(2):145-151.

Pharmacology, physiology, and mechanisms of incretin hormone action.

Campbell JE, Drucker DJ. Cell Metab. 2013;17:819-837.

From the triumvirate to the ominous octet: a new paradigm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Defronzo RA. Diabetes. 2009;58(4):773-795.

Minimizing hypoglycemia in diabetes.

International Hypoglycemia Study Group. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(8):1583-1591. 

Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2015: a patient-centered approach: update to a position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes.

Inzucchi SE, et al. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(1):140-149.

Loss of incretin effect is a specific, important, and early characteristic of type 2 diabetes.

Holst JJ, et al. Diabetes Care. 2011;34 (suppl 2):S251-S257.

Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in Type 2 diabetes.

Marso SP, et al. N Engl J Med. 2016 June 13 [Epub ahead of print].

Benefits of combination of insulin degludec and liraglutide are independent of baseline glycated haemoglobin level and duration of type 2 diabetes.

Rodbard HW, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016;18(1):40-48.

GLP-1 receptor agonists: a review of head-to-head clinical studies.

Trujillo JM, et al. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2015;6(1):19-28.

Type 2 diabetes patients reach target glycemic control faster using IDegLira than either insulin degludec or liraglutide given alone.

Vilsbøll T, et al. Clin Drug Investig. 2016;36(4):293-303.

Blood pressure-lowering effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists exenatide and liraglutide: a meta-analysis of clinical trials.

Wang B, et al. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013;15(8):737-749.

Comparison of GLP-1 analogues versus sitagliptin in the management of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of head-to-head studies.

Wang T, et al. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e103798.

Linked Resources


Standards of medical care in diabetes—2016.

The ADA’s Standards of Care provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested individuals with the components of good diabetes management, general treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. Importantly, these recommendations should be adjusted based on individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient-related factors.

American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(suppl 1):S1-S112.

AACE/ACE Comprehensive Diabetes Management Algorithm 2016. 

The AACE/ACE algorithm provides recommendations on evaluating the whole patient, outlines potential risks and complications, and highlights evidence-based treatment approaches for diabetes. The document contains sections on lifestyle changes, considerations for obese individuals, prediabetes, glycemic goals, antihyperglycemic therapies, treatment algorithms, modifications for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors, and overall principles of diabetes management. 

Garber AJ, et al. Endocr Pract. 2016;22(1):84-113.

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology—Clinical Practice Guidelines for Developing a Diabetes Mellitus Comprehensive Care Plan—2015. 

These clinical practice guidelines provide practical recommendations for comprehensive care, integrate microvascular and macrovascular risk, and emphasize individualized targets for weight loss, glucose control, lipid levels, and blood pressure. There is also information on hypertension management, nephropathy management, hypoglycemia, and antihyperglycemic therapies.

Handelsman Y, et al. Endocr Pract. 2015;21(suppl 1):1-87.

Patient and Caregiver Resources

Diabetes HealthSense

Created as part of the National Diabetes Education Program, Diabetes HealthSense includes easily accessible resources that can help patients live well and meet their goals—whether they have diabetes or are at risk for the disease. 

Decision Aids for T2DM

To facilitate shared decision making, these examples of medication choice decision aids from the Mayo Clinic are organized into 7 issues that may be of interest to patients with T2DM. A video demonstrating the use of these cards can be found at: